Kerosene deutsch

kerosene deutsch

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Kerosene Deutsch Video

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He also invented a new lamp to burn his product. At first, Kier simply dumped the useless oil into the nearby Pennsylvania Main Line Canal , but later he began experimenting with several distillates of the crude oil, along with a chemist from eastern Pennsylvania.

Many people knew of his work, but paid little attention to it. On the night of 31 July , doctors at the local hospital needed to perform an emergency operation, virtually impossible by candlelight.

The lamp burned so brightly and cleanly that the hospital officials ordered several lamps plus a large supply of fuel.

The increased supply of petroleum allowed oil refiners to entirely side-step the oil-from-coal patents of both Young and Gesner, and produce illuminating oil from petroleum without paying royalties to anyone.

As a result, the illuminating oil industry in the United States completely switched over to petroleum in the s. The petroleum-based illuminating oil was widely sold as Kerosene, and the trade name soon lost its proprietary status, and became the lower-case generic product "kerosene".

In the United Kingdom, manufacturing oil from coal or oil shale continued into the early 20th century, although increasingly overshadowed by petroleum oils.

As kerosene production increased, whaling declined. The American whaling fleet, which had been steadily growing for 50 years, reached its all-time peak of ships in By , just two years later, the fleet had dropped to ships.

The Civil War cut into American whaling temporarily, but only whaling ships returned to sea in , the first full year of peace, and that number dwindled until only 39 American ships set out to hunt whales in Electric lighting started displacing kerosene as an illuminant in the late 19th century, especially in urban areas.

However, kerosene remained the predominant commercial end-use for petroleum refined in the United States until , when it was exceeded by motor fuels.

The rise of the gasoline-powered automobile in the early 20th century created a demand for the lighter hydrocarbon fractions, and refiners invented methods to increase the output of gasoline, while decreasing the output of kerosene.

In addition, some of the heavier hydrocarbons that previously went into kerosene were incorporated into diesel fuel. Kerosene kept some market share by being increasingly used in stoves and portable heaters.

In , kerosene made up about 0. At one time the fuel, also known as heating oil in the UK and Ireland, was widely used in kerosene lamps and lanterns.

Although it replaced whale oil , the edition of Elements of Chemistry said, "The vapor of this substance [kerosene] mixed with air is as explosive as gunpowder.

In less-developed countries kerosene is an important source of energy for cooking and lighting. It is used as a cooking fuel in portable stoves for backpackers.

As a heating fuel, it is often used in portable stoves, and is sold in some filling stations. It is sometimes used as a heat source during power failures.

Kerosene is widely used in Japan as a home heating fuel for portable and installed kerosene heaters. In Japan, kerosene can be readily bought at any filling station or be delivered to homes.

It is used less for cooking, with LPG being preferred because it is easier to light. Kerosene is often the fuel of choice for range cookers such as Rayburn.

Additives such as RangeKlene can be put into kerosene to ensure that it burns cleaner and produces less soot when used in range cookers.

The Amish , who generally abstain from the use of electricity, rely on kerosene for lighting at night. More ubiquitous in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, kerosene space heaters were often built into kitchen ranges, and kept many farm and fishing families warm and dry through the winter.

At one time, citrus growers used a smudge pot fueled by kerosene to create a pall of thick smoke over a grove in an effort to prevent freezing temperatures from damaging crops.

Before the days of electrically lighted road barriers, highway construction zones were marked at night by kerosene fired, pot-bellied torches. Most of these uses of kerosene created thick black smoke because of the low temperature of combustion.

A notable exception, discovered in the early 19th century, is the use of a gas mantle mounted above the wick on a kerosene lamp.

Looking like a delicate woven bag above the woven cotton wick, the mantle is a residue of mineral materials mostly thorium dioxide , heated to incandescence by the flame from the wick.

The thorium and cerium oxide combination produces both a whiter light and a greater fraction of the energy in the form of visible light than a black body at the same temperature would.

These types of lamps are still in use today in areas of the world without electricity, because they give a much better light than a simple wick-type lamp does.

In countries such as India and Nigeria, kerosene is the main fuel used for cooking, especially by the poor, and kerosene stoves have replaced traditional wood-based cooking appliances.

As such, increase in the price of kerosene can have a major political and environmental consequence. The Indian government subsidizes the fuel to keep the price very low, to around 15 U.

Kerosene is used as a fuel in portable stoves , especially in Primus stoves invented in Portable kerosene stoves earn a reputation of reliable and durable stove in everyday use, and perform especially well under adverse conditions.

In outdoor activities and mountaineering, a decisive advantage of pressurized kerosene stoves over gas cartridge stoves is their particularly high thermal output and their ability to operate at very low temperature in winter or at high altitude.

In the midth century, kerosene or tractor vaporising oil TVO was used as a cheap fuel for tractors. The engine would start on gasoline, then switch over to kerosene once the engine warmed up.

A heat valve on the manifold would route the exhaust gases around the intake pipe, heating the kerosene to the point where it was vaporized and could be ignited by an electric spark.

In Europe following the Second World War, automobiles were similarly modified to run on kerosene rather than gasoline, which they would have to import and pay heavy taxes on.

Besides additional piping and the switch between fuels, the head gasket was replaced by a much thicker one to diminish the compression ratio making the engine less powerful and less efficient, but able to run on kerosene.

The necessary equipment was sold under the trademark "Econom". During the fuel crisis of the s, Saab-Valmet developed and series-produced the Saab 99 Petro that ran on kerosene, turpentine or gasoline.

The project, codenamed "Project Lapponia", was headed by Simo Vuorio, and towards the end of the s, a working prototype was produced based on the Saab 99 GL.

The car was designed to run on two fuels. Gasoline was used for cold starts and when extra power was needed, but normally it ran on kerosene or turpentine.

The idea was that the gasoline could be made from peat using the Fischer—Tropsch process. Between and , 3, Saab 99 Petros and 2, Talbot Horizons a version of the Chrysler Horizon that integrated many Saab components were made.

One reason to manufacture kerosene-fueled cars was that in Finland kerosene was less heavily taxed than gasoline. Kerosene is used to fuel smaller-horsepower outboard motors built by Yamaha, Suzuki, and Tohatsu.

Primarily used on small fishing craft, these are dual-fuel engines that start on gasoline and then transition to kerosene once the engine reaches optimum operating temperature.

Multiple fuel Evinrude and Mercury Racing engines also burn kerosene, as well as jet fuel. Today, kerosene is mainly used in fuel for jet engines in several grades.

One highly refined form of the fuel is known as RP-1 , and is often burned with liquid oxygen as rocket fuel. These fuel grade kerosenes meet specifications for smoke points and freeze points.

The combustion reaction can be approximated as follows, with the molecular formula C 12 H 26 dodecane:. In the initial phase of liftoff, the Saturn V launch vehicle was powered by the reaction of liquid oxygen with RP Kerosene is sometimes used as an additive in diesel fuel to prevent gelling or waxing in cold temperatures.

Ultra-low sulfur kerosene is a custom-blended fuel used by the New York City Transit Authority to power its bus fleet.

The transit agency started using this fuel in , prior to the widespread adoption of ultra-low-sulfur diesel , which has since become the standard.

JP-8 , for "Jet Propellant 8" a kerosene-based fuel, is used by the United States military as a replacement in diesel fueled vehicles and for powering aircraft.

JP-8 is also used by the U. Kerosene is used as a diluent in the PUREX extraction process, but it is increasingly being supplanted by dodecane.

In X-ray crystallography , kerosene can be used to store crystals. When a hydrated crystal is left in air, dehydration may occur slowly.

This makes the color of the crystal become dull. Kerosene can keep air from the crystal. It can be also used to prevent air from re-dissolving in a boiled liquid, [45] and to store alkali metals such as potassium , sodium , and rubidium with the exception of lithium, which is less dense than kerosene, causing it to float.

Kerosene is often used in the entertainment industry for fire performances, such as fire breathing , fire juggling or poi , and fire dancing.

Because of its low flame temperature when burnt in free air, the risk is lower should the performer come in contact with the flame.

Kerosene is generally not recommended as fuel for indoor fire dancing, as it produces an unpleasant to some odor, which becomes poisonous in sufficient concentration.

Ethanol was sometimes used instead, but the flames it produces look less impressive, and its lower flash point poses a high risk.

As a petroleum product miscible with many industrial liquids, kerosene can be used as both a solvent, able to remove other petroleum products, such as chain grease, and as a lubricant , with less risk of combustion when compared to using gasoline.

It can also be used as a cooling agent in metal production and treatment oxygen-free conditions. In the petroleum industry, kerosene is often used as a synthetic hydrocarbon for corrosion experiments to simulate crude oil in field conditions.

Kerosene can be applied topically to hard-to-remove mucilage or adhesive left by stickers on a glass surface such as in show windows of stores.

It can be used to remove candle wax that has dripped onto a glass surface; it is recommended that the excess wax be scraped off prior to applying kerosene via a soaked cloth or tissue paper.

It can be used to clean bicycle and motorcycle chains of old lubricant before relubrication. A variation on the "central-draught" lamp is the mantle lamp.

The mantle is a roughly pear-shaped mesh made of fabric placed over the burner. The mantle typically contains thorium or other rare-earth salts ; on first use the cloth burns away, and the rare-earth salts are converted to oxides, leaving a very fragile structure, which incandesces glows brightly upon exposure to the heat of the burner flame.

Mantle lamps are considerably brighter than flat- or round-wick lamps, produce a whiter light and generate more heat.

Mantle lamps typically use fuel faster than a flat-wick lamp, but slower than a center-draught round-wick, as they depend on a small flame heating a mantle, rather than having all the light coming from the flame itself.

Mantle lamps are nearly always bright enough to benefit from a lampshade, and a few mantle lamps may be enough to heat a small building in cold weather.

Mantle lamps, because of the higher temperature at which they operate, do not produce much odor, except when first lit or extinguished.

Like flat- and round-wick lamps, they can be adjusted for brightness; however, caution must be used, because if set too high, the lamp chimney and the mantle can become covered with black areas of soot.

A lamp set too high will burn off its soot harmlessly if quickly turned down, but if not caught soon enough, the soot itself can ignite, and a "runaway lamp" condition can result.

Pressurized mantle lamps contain a gas generator and require preheating the generator before lighting. An air pump is used to deliver fuel under pressure to the gas generator.

Large fixed pressurized kerosene mantle lamps were used in lighthouse beacons for navigation of ships, brighter and with lower fuel consumption than oil lamps used before.

A kerosene lantern, also known as a "barn lantern" or "hurricane lantern", is a flat-wick lamp made for portable and outdoor use.

They are made of soldered or crimped-together sheet-metal stampings, with tin-plated sheet steel being the most common material, followed by brass and copper.

There are three types: Both hot-blast and cold-blast designs are called tubular lanterns and are safer than dead-flame lamps, as tipping over a tubular lantern cuts off the oxygen flow to the burner and will extinguish the flame within seconds.

The earliest portable kerosene "glass globe" lanterns, of the s and s, were of the dead-flame type, meaning that it had an open wick, but the airflow to the flame was strictly controlled in an upward motion by a combination of vents at the bottom of the burner and an open topped chimney.

This had the effect of removing side-to-side drafts and thus significantly reducing or even eliminating the flickering that can occur with an exposed flame.

Later lanterns, such as the hot-blast and cold-blast lanterns, took this airflow control even further by partially enclosing the wick in a "deflector" or "burner cone" and channeling the airflow through that restricted area, creating a brighter and even more stable flame.

The hot-blast design, also known as a "tubular lantern" due to the metal tubes used in its construction, was invented by John Irwin and patented on January 12, The hot-blast design collected hot air from above the globe and fed it through metal side tubes to the burner, to make the flame burn brighter.

The cold-blast design is similar to the hot-blast, except that cold fresh air is drawn in from around the top of the globe and is then fed though the metal side tubes to the flame, making it burn brighter.

This design produces a brighter light than the hot-blast design, because the fresh air that is fed to the flame has plenty of oxygen to support the combustion process.

Generic lamp oil is available clear or in a choice of several colors and in scented and unscented forms. Although more expensive, lamp oil is highly refined and burns more cleanly and with less odor than kerosene.

In some locations " red kerosene " is sold, which is dyed red and is slightly less expensive than K-1 kerosene, as no motor-fuel taxes are collected on it.

Red kerosene is not recommended because the dye will gradually clog the lantern wick, causing odor and reduced performance. Citronella-scented lamp oil containing lemongrass oil is sold for its insect repellent properties.

Citronella fuels should only be used outdoors. Used in larger wicks, this fuel causes the wicks to clog. Flat-wick kerosene lamps should only be operated with kerosene or lamp oil, but alternative fuels can be used in an emergency.

Such fuels may produce additional smoke and odor and may not be usable indoors. Tractor vaporizing oil is made from kerosene with some additive to make a motor fuel for tractors.

Jet A jet-engine fuel is essentially kerosene with a few additives. RP-1 Rocket Propellant-1 is a highly refined form of kerosene outwardly similar to jet fuel, used as rocket fuel.

Any liquid with a low flash point presents a high risk of fire or explosion if used in a kerosene wick lamp. Such liquids are dangerous and should not be used in a kerosene lamp or lantern.

Contamination of lamp fuel with even a small amount of gasoline results in a lower flash point and higher vapor pressure for the fuel, with potentially dangerous consequences.

Vapors from spilled fuel may ignite; vapor trapped above liquid fuel may lead to excess pressure and fires. Kerosene lamps are still extensively used in areas without electrical lighting; the cost and dangers of combustion lighting are a continuing concern in many countries.

Flat-wick lamps have the lowest light output, center-draft round-wick lamps have 3—4 times the output of flat-wick lamps, and pressurized lamps have higher output yet; the range is from 8 to lumens.

A kerosene lamp producing 37 lumens for 4 hours per day consumes about 3 litres of kerosene per month.

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Kerosene deutsch - theme

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